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什么是“真实的停机费用”(TDC)?

ByDon Fitchett

实现更多知情管理决策的更大节省的关键是预先确定每个盈利中心类别的停机时间的“真实”成本。TDC是分析与停机相关的所有成本因素的方法,并使用此信息进行成本合理和日常管理决策。最有可能的是,此数据已在您的工厂中收集,只需根据TDC指南合并和组织。

成本调查_=0 to 30 Employees

_=31 to 50 Employees

_=51 to 100 Employees

_=101 to 200 Employees

_=201 to 301 Employees

Typically daily management decisions related to equipment downtime are made based primarily on labor cost. Of course, production demand is also at the top of the priority list too. The bottlenecks are taken into account in the decisions when they are realized. Some facilities overlook equipment as a bottleneck, like air compressors, boilers, and strappers out in the warehouse. The decision making balance to maintain is between production demand and "True Downtime Cost"™, not primarily production demand and direct labor cost.

Using a TDC methodology, the 'Overhead' bucket becomes very small, making clear to all, the areas of greatest opportunity. In these times of economic turmoil, it is ever more important to look at the "True Downtime Cost"™ in it's respective categories, not only to see the greatest opportunity, but to profit from the valuable insight this methodology will bring. You will learn that many of the metrics with cost savings bottom line improvement opportunities, far outweigh the labor category and the immediate temporary gains of downsizing.

Hidden cost

以下是一个例子,下面的隐藏成本在拟议的TDC桶中有关:劳动力。您将看到与停机场景相关的真正成本仅为295美元。与其他TDC类别相比,该金额苍白,其可以是10至100倍,这取决于特定的停机时间。因此,您可以了解TDC方法如何成为维护管理人员的有价值的成本理由和基准工具。向行政管理管理和为制造商提供服务和产品的人提供伟大的销售工具。(特别是ERP和CMMS供应商是数据的整合者)

There are three main downtime categories proposed. The main category of "Equipment Cost" and "Labor Cost" are composed of metrics that are one time entry of constants, updated annually, exported from your existing computer systems. The main category of "Downtime Cost" contain the metrics that are "per downtime" occurrence entries, but most can be exported from your existing CMMS. The data being recorded from facility to facility, from software package to software package, vary greatly. I have done detailed analysis of each downtime cost metric, but the results are too great to mention in this article. Surprisingly some metrics have large cost savings opportunities and have been overlooked by the general industry.

由于劳动力成本是首次开始寻求机会的最受欢迎的地区之一,让我们看看旧学校思维方式的一种方法。(也恰好是在停机时间决策中的主要关注点。)劳动力,更具体地说是直接的劳动力。例如,您有六个操作员在机器下降和两种维护技术人员进行维修时,有六个操作员。决策者正在思考:'每小时10美元的运营商工资,每小时20美元的维护工资,每小时100美元。好吧,我知道也有涉及的开销,但有很多类别,它太复杂考虑。展开场所只是我的男事时间的百分比。

overhead cost

现在将其与一个TDC类别的真实成本进行比较;劳动力成本。首先与架空桶消失,员工每小时成本就是公司的实际成本。随着保险,退休,培训,管理员等。每小时工资(200美元)是一个安全的数字。只要你不处理瓶颈,我们只需要考虑到间接劳动因素。让我们在我们的例子中看到,启动QC检查,工具设置人员,线上监督员,维护主管,植物经理,零件采购者,命名最明显的员工。

进入情景的更多细节,我们可以计算间接劳动力成本。15分钟的QC检查(5美元),设置人员也15分钟(5美元),主管是从他的正常职责中获取整个小时(30美元)。做什么?为什么监督当然,好吧,他有物流,重新分配员工,重新安排等,为了论证,我们将说生产需求很高。这需要两个高的美元员工,通常隐藏在开销中。维护经理被召唤为协调,(30美元),工厂经理在现场进行了15分钟,以确定优先级,并获得第一手事实(25美元)。

The grand total of TDC for labor is $200 direct labor + $95 indirect labor, for a total of $295. We all know in the industry, most would not bat an eye at $295. There are two points to made by this example. One is the commonly overlooked "overhead" cost, which is hiding almost 66% of the true cost in the labor category alone. The other point known to upper management and accountants, is indirect labor, which is a large part of the picture, yet only considered on a daily basis by very few.

生产成本

Above was a best case scenario. Consider a bottleneck with 20 downstream employees affected. Add in Engineering, material handlers, more management/supervisors, controller, safety personnel, accounting, secretaries, rework, and offsite QC inspections. You could include the offsite personnel cost like consultants, OEM techs, etc., but it is recommended to have those costs in their own category as they are so great. Think about if the entire plant was shut down. How much would the TDC labor cost alone, be? You may re-prioritize the main breaker switch or air compressor PM.

Looking for the overlooked

维护调查每个主要停机费用类别中的各个度量的详细信息将超出本文的范围。我希望你找到下面的列表,有一些有用的信息和提示。该对象是刺激创意思维过程,并帮助您实现可能被忽视的区域。人们认识到,围绕制造成本分析度量的指标存在大量不确定性和科学差异。该列表作为提高制造成本分析的起点提供。

  • Equipment Cost Category(常量)
    • Categories- Standardize your data collection categories, learn from MIMOSA.
    • 人们- 间接劳动力成本通常大于更明显的直接劳动力成本。
    • Product- 由两个子类别组成。每单位成本,每小时单位。
    • Start-up- Every time you startup your machine, there is hidden cost.
    • Bottleneck- Using a process flow diagram, pre-determine a bottleneck factor for each asset.
    • 销售期望- 我们的目标总是保持100%的容量准备。

  • 劳动成本类别(常量)
    • LPP/M- 您的LPP / LPU计算是否包括间接劳动力?
    • QC- Associate QC cost, re-work, etc. with actual downtime occurrence.
    • Maintenance- 有一个大量的工作人员,支持那些实际完成机器修复的人。
    • Engineering- Engineering costs to support troubleshooting and repair of machines can slip through the cracks.
    • Management- Requesting maintenance, redirecting operators, reporting to upper level management, altering production schedules/flow, administrative tasks, etc.

  • 停机费用类别(Occurrence)
    • Time- 您是否跟踪维护到达现场时,或者当机器实际下降时?
    • 减少生产- 由于故障,全容量设备的时间和百分比运行降低速率。
    • 废料- On continuous flow systems, scrap related directly with downtime can be a very significant cost.
    • 创可贴- Please take note that band-aid time estimates, and amount of times needed to be done are usually under estimated.
    • OEM, Consulting, Contractor- 您与OEM的互动可以是停机时间和其他领域的主要成本因素。
    • 工具- 如果允许继续,通常被归类为滋扰问题,可以真正增加成本。
    • Parts/Shipping- 除了零件和采购领域,实际零件成本是常用的唯一值。租赁如何运输,出租?

Reporting true results

lean manufacturing

在past, the philosophy was the less cost buckets I have to manage, the easier my job is. However today is the day of powerful computer tools and data collection technology. We now have the capability to have a computer manage all those buckets, and do it the way we want. This technology coupled with people type methodologies like TQM, TPM, RCM and Lean Manufacturing, enables us to spare our employees the hardships of downsizing and seek much greater opportunities such as equipment utilization.

When the world's top consultants are asked, "Why don't manufacturers realize the full potential of programs like TPM, RCM, or even their CMMS software?" you have no doubt heard some of the following standard replies. "The program was not endorsed from the top down", or "Lack of understanding of the strategy" or "Lack of measurable or quantifiable results". The last reply is the most accurate. With the realizing the true cost of downtime, will best quantify the results.

嘿,这对此说说了很多智慧,“金钱谈判......”。如果被认为是30万美元的机会,被发现是300万美元的机会,以100万美元的机会为准,以上,并对理解的承诺更有可能遵循。正如向设施向设施销售计划的领导人必须能够证明真实价值,必须在进行中报告真实结果。TDC桥接数据收集,软件/硬件和改进计划之间的差距,如精益制造。我已经概述了一些明确的简明步骤,将导致您到世界级的地位。

这些导向线是自我维持的。大多数人都确定了他们的瓶颈。只需确保您没有忽视墙壁上的一个挂在墙上,在后面的房间或建筑物外面。我谈到了识别真正的成本,因此设置了适当的优先级。接下来,我会在采用s'tandards和使用oee时发表一些评论。

Standards

意外停机时间Actually a combination of two methods are used to bridge the gap between data collection and management technique. Strict usage of TDC metrics and data sharing standards like MIMOSA. Implementation of programs like TPM, requires the proper structure, measures, information and commitment. Only using vague, generalized tools like OEE to base day to day financial decisions on, can cost thousands to millions. Build your facility on rock; build it on standards.

MIMOSA is more than an organization developing open exchange conventions. It is the enabling factor permitting integrated maintenance management, a connection to enterprise resource programs, and practical profitability-related operations and maintenance. Require your software vendors and program administrators to use TDC guidelines, and MIMOSA standards. This will reduce implementation cost, enhance benchmarking tools, and insure your success.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness

The overall performance of a single piece of equipment, or even an entire factory, will always be governed by the cumulative impact of the three OEE factors: Availability , Performance Rate, and Quality Reject Rate. When I was a speaker at an AFE convention in 拉斯维加斯 ,对我的惊奇,小组不知道Oee是什么。当前一天,我在罗伯特汉森的另一日在线聊天会议,本书的作者“整体设备有效性:强大的生产/维护工具增加了利润”。有什么问题被问到他?“什么是OEE?”

OverallE耗资EFfectivity.

可用性X表现XQuality=oee.

可用性- Measures the percent of time that the equipment can be used (usually total hours of 24-7-365 for equipment utilization, or scheduled production time to result in a reliability only measurement), divided by the equipment uptime (actual production).

表现- 设备以其理论速度为个别产品生产产品的可用时间的百分比。它测量速度损失。(例如,低效批量,机器堵塞)如果无法从OEM获得设备规格,请使用最佳录制的PPH /质量率。

Quality- 确定总产量的百分比(即所有产品,包括生产,工程,返工和废料)。

Terrence O'Hanlon,这个聊天会议的主人有一个很好的报价,让我所看到的核心,“他们不知道他们不知道的东西”。凭借OEE计算的知识和利用,常见的是实现底线增加超过40%。如果你现在正在赚钱,只想到机会。更重要的是,OEE是通过使所有人能够清楚地看到要关注的地方以及他们的努力的结果来维持其他举措的胶水。令人兴奋的观点是,OEE是一种简单的测量方法,您可以立即开始利用它!

The world's leaders in the industry are mostly in agreement on how to implement OEE and why. I contribute this fact to its simplicity. Identify your bottlenecks and major cost centers to benchmark and monitor first. Most recommend using the calendar time metric (24/7/365) for your availability factor. As machine utilization will also indicate reliability performance, giving you the whole picture and immediately focusing your resources on the greatest opportunity. Also using OEE as a benchmarking tool would not work well if based on a variable such as production schedule. Benchmarks must be based on a constant to allow portability to similar industries and markets. The bottom line is the method of implementing OEE is irrelevant if you don't start utilizing it at all. It is very true what they say, "Do something is better than doing nothing at all".

我对行业的挑战是停止OEE无知,并传播关于这个有价值的工具的话。Joel Lenard最喜欢的话题是“无知的成本是什么?”。我建议在使用真正的停机费用™时,我们将开始看看。以下是我在本文中跟进的最佳资源。

TDC -downtimecentral.com.

标准 -http://www.mimosa.org/mimosa-osa-cbm.

oee -//www.art-jams.com/articles/maintenanage-management/overall-equipment-ofections-oee.htm.

真正的停机费用

真正的停机费用分析 - 第2版

诺福奇特和迈克·桑达塔尼的电子书

"Costing methods & techniques for manufacturing processes to offer the greatest return on capital employed (ROCE)."

Description:
True Downtime Costs™ Analysis专注于成本核算和成本核算技术that quantify like activities that previously fell under theindirect cost definition, like the hidden cost of outsourcing, warranties, etc. This technique isa must for bottleneck management, but also should be applied to piece manufacturing and even other industries.

Authors Don Fitchett and Mike Sondalini coauthor the extension of the original Ebook "The true cost of manufacturing down time" (ISBN 1-933047-15-1). With this second edition also comes an action plan to utilize existing shop floor data collection to monitor the many manufacturing processes and associated costs.

"True Downtime Cost™" is a registered trademark of Business Industrial Network (https://BIN95.com)

Right click- "Save As", to download a PDF copy of this article.
(Note: this is not the entire book, just the article on this page.)Then you can print and give to your associates, or link to it on your web site!